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Ventolin inhaler contains albuterol. It is used to prevent and treat asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is also used to prevent exercise-induced asthma. It is a quick-relief drug. It can be used with a spacer.Buy Now
Ventolin Inhaler has an expressed bronchodilatory effect. It prevents or arrests bronchospasm. This inhaler decreases resistance in the airways. It enhances lung capacity and mucociliary clearance (in chronic bronchitis up to 36%), activates mucus secretion, brings into action the ciliated epithelium functions.
In prescribed therapeutic doses, it does not adversely affect the cardiovascular system, does not provoke an swings in blood pressure. To a lesser extent, comparing with drugs of this group, it has a positive chrono- and inotropic effect. It provokes expansion of the coronary arteries.
It has a number of metabolic effects: decreases the concentration of potassium in plasma, affects glycogenolysis and insulin secretion, has a hyperglycemic (especially in patients with bronchial asthma) and lipolytic effect, magnifies the acidosis risk.
- arresting of bronchial asthma symptoms when they occur;
- prevention of bouts of bronchospasm connected with induction to an allergen or indused by exercise;
- use as one of the components in long-term maintenance therapy of bronchial asthma.
Other chronic lung diseases with reversible airway obstruction, including COPD, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema.
Bronchodilators should not be the only or main component in the treatment of unstable or severe bronchial asthma. In the absence of a reaction to salbutamol in patients with severe bronchial asthma, GCS therapy is prescribed in order to achieve and keep control of the disease. Failure to respond to salbutamol therapy may indicate the need for urgent medical advice or treatment.
Ventolin inhaler is intended only for inhalation through the mouth. An enhanced need for the use of β2-adrenergic receptor agonists may be a sign of worsening bronchial asthma. In such a situation, it may be necessary to reassess the patient’s treatment regimen with consideration of the advisability of prescribing simultaneous therapy with GCS.
Since overdose may be accompanied by the development of adverse reactions, the dose or frequency of drug use can be changed only on the doctor’s recommendation.
The duration of salbutamol action in most patients is 4 to 6 hours.
In children and infants prescribing Ventolin, it is advisable to use a pediatric spacer device with a face mask.
For arresting a bronchospasm attack for adults, the prescribed dose is 100 or 200 mcg; children – 100 mcg, if necessary, the dose can be gone up to 200 mcg. It is not prescribed to use the Ventolin inhaler more than 4 times/day. The need for such frequent use of additional doses of Ventolin or for a sharp swing in the dose indicates a worsening of the asthma course.
The asthma attacks can be prevented connected with induction to an allergen or indused by exercise, adults – 200 mcg 10-15 minutes before induction to a provoking factor or load; children – 100 mcg 10-15 minutes before induction to a provoking factor or load, if necessary, the dose can be gone up to 200 mcg.
Long-term maintenance therapy for adults – up to 200 mcg 4 times / day; children – up to 200 mcg 4 times / day.
- The immune system: very rarely – hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema, urticaria, bronchospasm, decreased blood pressure and collapse.
- The side of metabolism and nutrition: rarely – hypokalemia. Beta2-agonist therapy can lead to clinically significant hypokalemia.
- The nervous system: often – tremor, headache; very rarely – hyperactivity.
- The cardiovascular system: often – tachycardia; infrequently – palpitations; rarely, peripheral vasodilation; very rarely – arrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia and extrasystole).
- The respiratory system: very rarely – paradoxical bronchospasm.
- The digestive system: infrequently – irritation of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and pharynx.
- The musculoskeletal system: infrequently – muscle cramps.
- Management of preterm labor;
- Threatening abortion;
- Hypersensitivity to the drug components or any other component that is part of the drug.
Salbutamol should be used with caution in patients with thyrotoxicosis, tachyarrhythmia, myocarditis, heart defects, aortic stenosis, coronary artery disease, severe chronic heart failure, arterial hypertension, pheochromocytoma, decompensated diabetes mellitus, glaucoma.
Application during pregnancy and lactation
During pregnancy, the drug should be prescribed only if the expected benefit of therapy to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus.In the course of post-registration observation, rare cases of various malformations in children, including the formation of a cleft palate and malformations of the extremities, were identified while taking salbutamol during pregnancy. In some of these cases, the mothers took multiple concomitant medications during pregnancy. Due to the absence of a permanent nature of the defects and the background incidence of congenital anomalies, ranging from 2 to 3%, a causal relationship with the drug intake has not been established.
Salbutamol probably passes into breast milk and is therefore not prescribed for breastfeeding women unless the expected benefit to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the baby. There is no evidence of whether salbutamol in breast milk has a harmful effect on the newborn.
Symptoms of salbutamol overdose are transient phenomena pharmacologically mediated by stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors, such as decreased blood pressure, tachycardia, muscle tremor, nausea, vomiting. The use of large salbutamol doses can provoke metabolic changes, including hypokalemia, it is necessary to control the concentration of potassium in the blood serum.
Treatment: when used in high doses, as well as in case of an overdose of short-acting beta-agonists, the development of lactic acidosis was found, therefore, in case of an overdose, control over an enhancement in serum lactate and the possibility of metabolic acidosis may be shown (especially if tachypnea persists or worsens, despite elimination other signs of bronchospasm, such as wheezing).
- It is not prescribed to concomitantly use salbutamol and non-selective β-adrenergic blockers, such as propranolol.
- Salbutamol is not prohibited in patients receiving MAO inhibitors.
- In patients with thyrotoxicosis, Ventolin inhaler enhances the effect of central nervous system stimulants, tachycardia.
- Theophylline and other xanthines, when used simultaneously with salbutamol, grow the likelihood of developing tachyarrhythmias.
- The simultaneous appointment with anticholinergics (including inhalation) can provoke an increase in an intraocular pressure.
- Diuretics and GCS enhance the hypokalemic effect of salbutamol.